# lp-encoding

Linear programming (LP) is a neat way to optimize things. Although (integer) linear programming is NP-hard, in practice LP solvers such as Gurobi employ loads of sophisticated heuristics and preprocessing techniques to speed up runtime. Because of this, it's always pretty cool to realize I can reduce some part of a hard decision problem (e.g., something PSPACE-complete) to LP. Similar deal with SAT and SMT.

Sometimes, when attempting to encode a problem into LP, I want to reason about my constraints with boolean logic. I find doing so can be quite convenient. Here's how to do it yourself.

Logical OR: To express $x_1 \vee x_2 \vee x_3$, we create a boolean indicator variable $0 \geq y_1 \geq 1$ and do

$$

y_1 \leq x_1 + x_2 + x_3 \\ y_1 \geq x_1, \: y_1 \geq x_2, \: y_1 \geq x_3

$$

For an arbitrarily large amount of indicator variables, we have:

$$

0 \leq ny - \sum x_i \leq n - 1

$$

Logical AND: To express $x_1 \land x_2 \land x_3$, we create $0 \geq y_2 \geq 1$ and do

$$

y_2 \geq x_1 + x_2 + x_3 - 2 \\ y_2 \leq x_1, \: y_2 \leq x_2, \: y_2 \leq x_3

$$

For any number of indicator variables:

$$

0 \leq \sum x_i - ny \leq n - 1

$$

Logical NOT: To express $\neg x_1$ we simply do $y_3 = 1 - x_1$

Logical XOR: To express $y_4 = x_1 \oplus x_2$ it's a bit more complex:

$$

y_4 \leq x_1 + x_2 \\

y_4 \geq x_1 - x_2 \: y_4 \geq x_2 - x_1 \\

y_4 \leq 2 - x_1 - x_2

$$

Forced Implication: To

Indicated Implication: Because implication is syntactic sugar e.g. $(x_1 \Rightarrow x_2) == (\neg x_1 \vee x_2)$, we can adapt the or construction:

$$

y_5 \leq 1 - x_1 + x_2 \\

y_5 \geq 1 - x_1, \: y_5 \geq x_2

$$

Encoding things this way obviously adds a lot of complexity to the LP problem, and I find overusing this encoding can be really expensive.

$$

a - b \leq M \cdot z \\

b - a \geq M \cdot z

$$

This way, when $z=0$, $a=b$. Otherwise, $-M \leq a-b \leq M$. This can be adapted to any linear or nonlinear constraint, given $M$ is chosen properly.

But, similarly, this can be expensive ._.

• More Lecture Notes

• Northeastern LP Lecture Notes

Sometimes, when attempting to encode a problem into LP, I want to reason about my constraints with boolean logic. I find doing so can be quite convenient. Here's how to do it yourself.

## A Naive Approach: Flattened Constraints

Given our linear constraints $c_1, c_2, ..., c_n$, a naive approach to getting the boolean logic we want is to*flatten*our constraints to binary variables $x_1, x_2,..., x_n$ that indicate if the respective constraint is satisfied. This way, we can use a simple encoding to get the boolean logic we want.Logical OR: To express $x_1 \vee x_2 \vee x_3$, we create a boolean indicator variable $0 \geq y_1 \geq 1$ and do

$$

y_1 \leq x_1 + x_2 + x_3 \\ y_1 \geq x_1, \: y_1 \geq x_2, \: y_1 \geq x_3

$$

For an arbitrarily large amount of indicator variables, we have:

$$

0 \leq ny - \sum x_i \leq n - 1

$$

Logical AND: To express $x_1 \land x_2 \land x_3$, we create $0 \geq y_2 \geq 1$ and do

$$

y_2 \geq x_1 + x_2 + x_3 - 2 \\ y_2 \leq x_1, \: y_2 \leq x_2, \: y_2 \leq x_3

$$

For any number of indicator variables:

$$

0 \leq \sum x_i - ny \leq n - 1

$$

Logical NOT: To express $\neg x_1$ we simply do $y_3 = 1 - x_1$

Logical XOR: To express $y_4 = x_1 \oplus x_2$ it's a bit more complex:

$$

y_4 \leq x_1 + x_2 \\

y_4 \geq x_1 - x_2 \: y_4 \geq x_2 - x_1 \\

y_4 \leq 2 - x_1 - x_2

$$

Forced Implication: To

*assert*$x_1 \Rightarrow x_2$, we can simply do $x_1 \leq x_2$Indicated Implication: Because implication is syntactic sugar e.g. $(x_1 \Rightarrow x_2) == (\neg x_1 \vee x_2)$, we can adapt the or construction:

$$

y_5 \leq 1 - x_1 + x_2 \\

y_5 \geq 1 - x_1, \: y_5 \geq x_2

$$

Encoding things this way obviously adds a lot of complexity to the LP problem, and I find overusing this encoding can be really expensive.

## Flattening Constraints

But how do you reduce any given constraint to an indicator variable? In general, the big M method is used. Adapted from Gurobi's documentation, the idea is for some arbitrarily large $M$ and a linear constraint $a = b$, enforce for some $0 \leq z \leq 1$:$$

a - b \leq M \cdot z \\

b - a \geq M \cdot z

$$

This way, when $z=0$, $a=b$. Otherwise, $-M \leq a-b \leq M$. This can be adapted to any linear or nonlinear constraint, given $M$ is chosen properly.

But, similarly, this can be expensive ._.

## Making This Practical

In my experience, the best way to make this approach practical runtime-wise is to take advantage of where boolean values naturally appear in constraints. Building up a large boolean expression, although possible, is just so expensive even with great LP solvers.## References

• UT Dallas Big M Lecture Notes• More Lecture Notes

• Northeastern LP Lecture Notes